during these two weeks I tried to fix some problems in pcg and gmres.

You can find the codes at

https://bitbucket.org/CrisDorigo/socis16-octave-iter_meth/src

in the folder "pcg_gmres".

**PCG****Question on my previous post**

In my previous post I had some problem in pcg with the check if the matrix was or not positive definite. Indeed the check done in the Octave code was not precise, especially if involved complex numbers. (To recall: in the algorithm is computed alpha = (r' * r) / (p' * (A*p)) and the control was: if alpha <= 0, break. The problem is that also if alpha was complex the algorithm must stop, moreover for Octave every complex number is greater than 0, so pcg didn't notice if alpha has an imaginary part).

After a (brief) discussion with the Octave community I changed the control on alpha. First of all it checks separately the numerator and the denominator of alpha (because if there is a preconditioner matrix then the definition of alpha "slightly" changes and also the numerator can be negative and/or complex), then the algorithm stops if

(abs (imag (num)) >= eps (real (num))*tol/eps) or real (num) <= 0

(the same control is made for den).

In this way the algorithm stops if really the numerator (or denominator) of alpha is negative or if it has an imaginary part "too big" (this is relative to the tolerance, because we thought that it is not the case to stop the algorithm if the imaginary part is, for example, 1e-16). If this happen then the FLAG output is setted as 4.

Unfortunately, alpha can be real and positive at every iteration also if the matrix is not positive definite, so there are cases when this check doesn't works, but there are nothing that we can do.

**Other changes**

I made other changes to make the code more compatible with Matlab. The most relevant are:

- Making some tests with Matlab I noticed that the output approximation X is not the last computed, but the one with the minimum residual and the output variable IT gives the iteration which X was computed. The Matlab help is not very explicit about this. I noticed this fact because controlling its outputs, sometimes lenght(RESVEC) is greater than IT, where RESVEC is the vector of the residuals. So at first I thought that there was something wrong (it was strange that there are 10, 20 or 30 residuals more than iterations), then I noticed this "minimum" relation. Then I modified the pcg in such a way also the Octave one has this output.
- I added the check about the stagnation. Indeed there is the possibility that the algorithm stagnates (in general when the (preconditioned) matrix A is not positive definite but the algorithm doesn't notice it). So I add the control:
*if (norm (x - x_pr) <= eps*norm (x))*, where x_pr is the approximation of the previous iteration, then the algorithm stagnates and the FLAG output is setted as 3. - I added a check to control if the preconditioner matrix is singular, and if this happens then FLAG = 2. To do this, I use a try-catch approach:

try

warning("error","Octave:singular-matrix");

. . . (pcg computations)

catch

flag = 2;

end_try_catch

In this way the warning "Octave:singular-matrix" is setted as an error, and with the try-catch I control if this error appears.

I used this approach because in Matlab and Octave there are different results when we try to solve M \ b, with M singular:

In Matlab there is always a warning and the output has some NaN or Inf;

I Octave the warning appears only the first time that we try to solve it and the output is the least squares minimization.

Unfortunately, since in Octave this warning appears only the first time, if we use pcg for a second time (without quitting Octave) with the same linear system with singular M, then FLAG = 2 is not setted.

There is another case where this approach doesn't work: when the matrix is setted as "Diagonal Matrix" then this warning doesn't appear. For example:*octave-cli:3> M1 = eye(3);*

octave-cli:4> M1(3,3) = 0

M1 =

Diagonal Matrix

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 0

octave-cli:5> M2 = [0 0 0;0 1 0; 0 0 1]

M2 =

0 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

octave-cli:6> M1 \ ones(3,1)

ans =

1

1

0

octave-cli:7> M2 \ ones(3,1)

warning: matrix singular to machine precision

ans =

0

1

1

In this case M1 and M2 are different singular matrices, but if I try to solve a linear system with them there is a warning only with M2. - I setted the output flag as in Matlab:

FLAG = 0 : algorithm converged

FLAG = 1 : maximum number of iterations reached

FLAG = 2 : preconditioner matrix is singular

FLAG = 3 : stagnation

FLAG = 4: (preconditioned) matrix A not positive definite

About FLAG = 2 and FLAG = 4:

"FLAG = 2": the Matlab help tell that this flag appears when M is ill-conditioned, but the only case in which I can reproduce this flag is when M is singular. But singular and ill-conditioned matrix are different concepts, (ill-conditioned when the condition number is high, singular when det(A) is zero). Indeed, for example, Hilbert matrices are ill-conditioned but not singular. Since in Matlab I had FLAG = 2 only when M singular, in the code and in my pcg help is written that this flag appears only when M is singular, and not when M ill-conditioned.

"FLAG = 4": Also with this flag Matlab is not very clear. In the help is written that this flag appears when the algorithm can not continue due to some values too big or too small. But I can reproduce it only when A is not positive definite, so in my pcg help I wrote that it appears only when the algorithm detect that A is not positive definite. - I fixed the output strings that appears when there are asked less than 2 outputs and I wrote them in such a way they are similar to the Matlab ones.
- I update the pcg help, in such a way it is synchronized with these changes.

**GMRES**

More or less I made the same changes of the pcg algorithm also in gmres (the discussion about the positive definitiveness of the matrix doesn't care here, since the gmres algorithms must works with any matrix, so there are 3 types of flag and not 4 as in the pcg).

One little things about the variable IT. In both Matlab and Octave, there are written in the help that in the variable IT are memorized the inner and the outer iterations, but they are not so clear about what they are. For this reason in the help I added a little deep explanation about what they are and how they are related with the total number of iterations. In particular the inner iterations are the iteration before that the restart is applied, instead the outer iterations count how many times the restart is applied. Then the total number of iterations are:

(Outer Iterations)*RESTART + (Inner Iterations).

I think that the most of the work about these two algorithms is done. Up to small changes and/or bugs that I can find trying my codes I think that they are more or less definitive.

If you find some bugs, you find something not clear, or have some advices please contact me.

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